The modern world stands at the path of yet another change in techno-economical paradigm, a new technological system is emerging, the core of which consists of bio- and nanotechnologies, genetic engineering, photonics, robotics and thermonuclear energy. In the guidelines of this model, further developments will receive a flexible automation of production; there will be improvements upon the process of formation of global information networks and integrated high-speed transport systems; there will be more usage of green and renewable energy sources. The advantageous factors of the new (sixth) system should be a steep drop in the expenditure of materials and energy in production, as well as a possibility of the creation of construction materials with predetermined characteristics. According to the prognosis, at the current rate of development, a new paradigm will be established in the developed countries by the 2020; recently in these countries, a part of the productive forces, which conform to the sixth system, makes up around 5%.
The transformation of the production infrastructure is impossible without the targeted large-scale promotion of innovations and the dynamic realization of scientific achievements. The deciding role in the process of the formation of the techno-economical paradigm belongs to the new technologies, which are created on the base of fundamental scientific research. It is important to understand that the process of implementation of innovational knowledge possesses a complex character: the knowledge, gained from the fundamental sciences geared towards perspectives. On the basis of this new knowledge, groundbreaking technologies will be developed in the near future, the application of which, will in turn, bring about the creation of a new product. In order to make this system function properly working mechanisms of interactions between all of the parties involved must exist. The Vice-President of the Russian Academy of Sciences, doctor of economical sciences Ivanov, has stated that: “The dualism of innovational development stems from this model: the current standing of the fundamental sciences determine the condition of the business in the long-term perspectives – the present state of the business decides on the perspectives of the development of fundamental sciences”.
The choice of primary directions of scientific research becomes the deciding factor of governmental politics for the creation of the conditions for the transition of economics in the sixth technological system. The adoption of long-term programs, such as the “Strategy – 2020” and “Strategy of innovational development”, determine the priorities of the investments and presents a possibility for a business to take part in the solution of specific issues. However, taking into account the Russian specifics, it is important to note that the main potential for the realization of the innovational strategy is located in the governmental sector of sciences. In Russia more than 70% of the scientific-technological base is part of the governmental property and the public sector appears to be the main source of innovation.
It is exactly for this reason that for Russia to enter into the new system, there have to be some important cardinal changes in the forms and methods of control, organization and financing of sciences. Unfortunately, the currently existing administration structure does not allow for an effective application of synergy between academic and applied sciences, as it was noted by academician Kablov, a member of the Presidential Council of the Russian Federation: “The connection between the basic and applied research is already torn on the level of the creation of financial plans.” According to the scientist there is a necessity to rebuild the structure of the entire innovational sphere as well as a radical modernization of management, which is only possible if the science will gain a status of independent branch of economic.
The problems within the organization of scientific process, lie in the basis of the slow development of the fundamental sciences in Russia. The Minister for Education and Science Livanov thinks that “contrary to popular belief, the deficit of resources is not the main obstacle in the growth of our science. In the case of government investments, in both the absolute and percentile meaning, we are in the top five countries of the world, but we haven’t created a structure for the effective implementation of the scientific processes and due to that we have this anomalous situation”.
The deciding condition of whether Russia can enter the sixth technological system is the level of development of innovation – the base element of the new paradigm. The understanding of the primary importance of the fundamental research as the basis for innovational development presents a chance to grade the importance and place of academic science in the modern world.